Monday, 28 November 2016
Although large and ornamental pieces were often made by professionals, many small, personal items were carved by miners themselves. The National Coal Mining Museum for England, near Wakefield in Yorkshire, has many examples of carved coal.
Snuff boxes were common items - miners were keen snuff users because it was a great way to clear coal dust from their noses at the end of a shift - but other regularly made objects were ornamental shoes, or small pieces of jewellery.
The material used for carving was cannel coal, a fine-grained variety that was used to produce coal gas. It was cleaner than domestic coal, and took a high polish. In Scotland they used another type called parrot coal, which got its name because of the noise it made when it was burned.
Parrot coal was also very strong and was often made into furniture. The Wemyss Coal Company had a table that weighed 5cwt (250 kilos)
The items in the photo were made by miners in Nottinghamshire and date from the late 19th century.
Incidentally - this is my 100th post on this blog.
Sunday, 20 November 2016
The Order of St John grew from a group of 11th century religious soldiers who cared for the sick and wounded in Jerusalem. Its modern day equivalent is, of course, St John Ambulance. The Anorak is descended from two generations of Serving Brothers of the Order, and the current Mr Anorak is a regular first aider in the same organisation,
In the early 11th century a hospital was set up by a group of monks in Jerusalem. The monks cared for travellers on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The monks became known as the Hospitallers and their new religious order was officially recognised by the Church in 1113. They cared for anyone, regardless of race or faith. During the Crusades the Hospitallers took on a military role and eventually became known as the Knights of the Order of St John of Jerusalem.
In 1291 Palestine was recaptured by Muslim forces so the Order was forced to move, first to Cyprus then, in 1309, to Rhodes. The Order stayed there until 1522, when Turkish Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the island and they were forced to move again.
The Order moved to Malta and took an active part in its defence - including during a siege by Suleiman in 1565 - until 1798, when Napoleon took control of the island.
In the 1140s the Order set up an English headquarters in Clerkenwell, but when Henry VIII split up from Rome the lands and property were seized by the crown. Henry's daughter Elizabeth I dissolved the Order completely.
Following the dissolution the abbey buildings had many different uses, including the office of the Master of the Revels during Elizabeth's reign. Thirty of Shakespeare's plays were performed there.
Artist William Hogarth's father Richard ran the gatehouse as a coffee house in the 18th century. Samuel Johnson was employed there to write for the Gentleman's Magazine. The gatehouse later became a pub called the Old Jerusalem Tavern and Charles Dickens was among its customers.
The current Order of St John was established by Royal Charter by Queen Victoria in 1888. It operated the first ambulance transport system as well as offering first aid services to the public.